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China Literature

China Literature is a topic as large and diversified as Chinese history and Chinese culture. Chinese literature is approximately based on Chinese culture, Chinese characters, Chinese philosophy and Chinese history. It is an important show window exhibiting Chinese civilization and charm. Similar to Chinese culture, Chinese literature is also distinguished from western literature in nearly all fields it connected. Chinese literature is comprised of four sections in the sub-homepage: Masters of Literature, Popular Literary Classics, Textbook of Literature and Papers and Journals of Literature. This is classified from the different themes.

In accordance with the phase of evolution, it can be categorized into four parts: the remote phase of ancient time, the medieval phase of ancient time, the ancient time nearest to the present and the modern times. And specifically, four phases also can be further divided into eight sections: the phase of Three Ancestral Periods, Qin Dynasty and Han Dynasty (before 3BC), which belongs to the phase of the remote times. The medieval period ranging from Wei and Jin Dynasties to middle phase of Ming Dynasty, which exactly consists of the time from Wei and Jin Dynasties to middle time of Tang Dynasty, the phase from the middle time of Tang Dynasty to late South Song Dynasty, and the phase from the early period of Yuan Dynasty to middle period of Ming Dynasty. The ancient times nearest to the present extends from the middle times of Ming Dynasty to the accident of May Fourth Student Movement, exactly covers the period from late Ming Dynasty to the Opium War(1840), and the period from the Opium War to May Fourth Movement(1919). The modern times includes the period from 1919 to today, exactly include: the phase from 1919 to 1949, domestically considered as the pre-liberation literature in mainland China, and the phase from 1949 to the present, which is considered to be the new literature, a ruin period of literature.

All types of literatures were originated from the pre-Qin period, and the prose could be traced back to the inscriptions of the oracle bones, and the prose and poem dates from the Book of Songs(Shi Jing), Chu Ci(Verses of Chu) and Yuefu Poem of Han Dynasty(Verses and Poems of Music Bureau of Han Dynasty) , the novel from the mythic legend , the essay from the historical works like Zuo Zhuan(Lu State’s Chronicle Created by Zuo Qiuming) and Records of the Grand Historian (First Great Official History Created by Sima Qian), as well as the diverse fable stories from various thinkers and writers, even the origin of Chinese opera is partially inspired by the works of Jiu Ge(Nine Songs). Furthermore, the ideological base of Chinese literature also formed in this period, especially influenced by Confucianism and Taoism. Confucianism emphasizes the social importance of literature, while Taoism attaches importance to the aesthetics of literature. Besides, scholar-bureaucrats turned to be the main creators of literature, and then the literature was never away from the elite culture of China until the coming of Song Dynasty. The pure type of literature in this phase is highly represented by Fu masterpieces of Han Dynasty, and the representatives were Sima Xiangru, Mei Cheng and Wang Bao etc.

Generally speaking, the medieval period is the self-consciousness time of Chinese literature, and it was the official symbol of the independent literature of China. All types of literature represented by poems, ci, qu, fu, prose and novels. The outstanding representatives of litterateurs include Three Writers of Cao Family(Cao Cao, Cao Pi and Cao Zhi), Seven Great Writers of Wei and Jin Dynasty, Tao Yuanming, Xie Lingyun, Yu Xin, Four Excellent Writers of Early Tang Dynasty, Cheng Ziang, Wang Wei, Meng Haoran, Gao Shi, Li Po, Du Fu, Bai Juyi, Han Yu, Li Shangyin. two vivid phenomena of literature appeared – Jian An Feng Gu(the Power and Strength of Literature of Jianan Period) and Sheng Tang Qi Xiang(the Great Atmosphere of Peak-Time Tang Dynasty). In Song Dynasty, which was the summit period of Chinese literature, and the representatives were Su Dongpo, Ou Yangxiu, Liu Yong, Zhou Bangyan, Li Qingzhao, Xin Qiji, Jiang Kui, Qin Guan, Huang Tingjian and Lu You. The scholars and poets were generally the same people. The talents from Jiangxi province were the backbone of literature in Song Dynasty. In the aspect of prose and essay, Eight Great Writers of Tang and Song Dyansties were the typical representatives.

Since Yuan Dynasty, the operas flourished, and In Ming and Qing Dynasties, novelists became the heroes of literature, and the represented novels included Outlaws of the Marsh, The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West and A Dream of Red Mansion, all of which are together considered as Four Great Classical Novels of Ancient China, also the operas were in the peak time represented by Peony Pavilion, Longevity Palace and Peach Blossom Fan.

In modern times, the modern literature changes the traditional way of literary creation, and the westernized style of literature dominated the development of literature in China. The poem was modernized to be the free style of poem, and the classical literature of traditional Chinese language is replaced by the modern literature weaved by the modern Chinese language, due to Hu Shi’s Colloquial Writing Movement. The representatives were Xu Zhimo, Lu Xun, Wen Yiduo, Dai Wangshu, Lin Yutang, Zhou Zuoren, Zhang Henshui, Wang Guowei and so on. After 1949, the literature is obviously politicized, and it is not independent any more. So it is ignored by many real scholars when they think about the history of China literature. (More Details)

  • History existed for humankind, and critical characters as one proportion of humankind historically played the key role in the each reform, revolution, movement, battle and social transfer of history. In this way, critical characters are very important for evolution and progress of history. In Chinese history, there are incalculable crucial figures in history directing and conducting the developmental tendency of history…

    Sima Qian and His
    Life Experiences
    Sima Xiangru and
    Zhuo Wenjun
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru


  • Popular Literary Classics is the subpage themed with the masterpieces of Chinese literature apt to Chinese classic literature and Chinese modern literature. The literature masterpieces before the collapse of Qing Dynasties include Thirteen Classics(十三经), Four Books(四书),The Selected Works of Tao Yuan Ming, Zhuang Zi, Lao Zi, The Selected Works of Tang-Dynasty Poetry, The Selected Works of Song-Dynasty Ci, Tao Hua Shan(The Peach Blossom Fan), Mu Dan Ting(The Peony Pavilion) , Dou'E Yuan(Gross Injustice of Dou'E) and Four Classic Novels mentioned in above-mentioned passage. …

    Lanting Xu The Art of Writing Zhuang Zi Sima Xiangru
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru


  • Textbooks of Literature mainly talks about the books widely used on campus and the different and similar aspects of these books to see the tendency development of Chinese Literature Education in higher-education system. …

    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru


  • Papers and Journals of Chinese Literature chiefly connects with the authoritative papers and journals that professionally and influentially embodies the latest progress and attention of Chinese literature. The representatives are Literary Heritage(文学遗产), mainly themed with the research of Chinese ancient literature, and Literature Critique(文学评论)…

    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru
    Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru Sima Xiangru


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