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China’s ancient architecture has its uniqueness in architectural characteristics of art. The architecture of Forbidden City has a symmetry layout. The compounding of yards or gardens, the designing of room, the single or independent architecture, the fitment and decoration of architecture, the furnishings of inside and outside of buildings, form of the roof and the color of the architecture all show the art features of Chinese ancient architecture. From them, people could feel the beauty or aesthetics of Chinese ancient architecture. It gains a great achievement in the aspects of general design and single architectural design. Besides, the use of the architectural color is also the typical in Chinese ancient and traditional architectural arts
The wide comparative method is used in color design of Forbidden City, and then gets the vivid and magnificent effect of the color use. Through Tiananmen(Heaven-Peace Gate), Wumen (Meridian Gate) and into the Palaces, and on the way, the blue sky, yellow tiles, iridescent painting, red gate and window as well as white steps and cornerstones are in sharp contrast with the ground. It gives the visitors the impressive feeling. The main architecture on the palace axes rigidly follows the general depicted effect. Other areas are creatively and flexibly done according to the function of building and the surroundings. For instance, the roof designing of Wenyuange is used of the black glazed tiles with a green rim. The doors, windows and the columns are all green, connecting with the artificial stones and well-preserved flowers and trees for creating a strong cultural environment. A large amount of pavilions and towers also have a free and changing color such as in Imperial Garden and Qianlong Garden.
The color designing of Forbidden City architecture is shown both in general layout and the detailed sections. Setting Huangji Palace as an example, people can feel the sharp difference in details shown in its color and painting below the eaves, arches and its red columns as well as its door and window. The change of inside color is in accordance with its function. The main buildings on the axes is very important, so the beams and the roofs of the palaces mostly are painted by the colorized painting, and the red window and gate are both largely decorated with golden color in order to show the atmosphere of magnificence and sobriety, while in the living palace for emperor and empress is also sharply different from others. The window and door as well as the ceiling all remain the natural features of the wood. The inner wall is white and pasted with white paper and the whole decorative style and color are apt to simplicity, additionally the features of rosewood furnishings in the rooms give the residents’ the feeling of peace and tranquility.
Architecture of Forbidden City
Architectural Construction of Forbidden City is a series of exclusive system mainly characterized by the normalization and finalization of wooden structure in China. In 1103, the published book of Construction Measures is concerned about the principles of design, building and material using of palace, temples, office building, and mansions.
The architectural construction of Forbidden City palaces also has a little development after succession of the tradition in standardization and finalization of architectural building. In 1734, a book named How to Do the Engineering, further systemizes the measures for palace building.
Compared with them in the past, the architectural measures of palaces of Ming and Qing Dynasties are more thorough, detailed and useful. Many specific regulations have been shown in ground layout, dais and fence , wood structure, roof style, wall formation, inner and outer decoration as well as paintings. The systemization of architectural construction on the one hand shows the high level maturity of architectural system, which is beneficial for work efficiency promotion and engineering management strengthening. On the other hand, it is harmful of the further development due to its inclination to rigescence and limits of creativity of architects.